Government

Entire Male Pigs

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Welcome to this learning resource on entire male pigs!

It has been known since the Middle Ages that meat from a small minority (up to 10 %) of entire male pigs has an unpleasant odour, the so-called boar taint. The sensibility to boar taint is different between consumers and it can only be detected by some of the consumers and mainly when the pork is heated (Støier, 2010).

Problems with boar taint are nevertheless the primary reason for castration being routinely performed on the majority of male pigs in commercial meat production. Castration also results in reduced aggressive and sexual behaviour between pigs and a higher proportion of fat in carcasses.

Entire male pigs are preferred for meat production for several reasons. They are more efficient than castrates at converting feed into lean meat and, because they are slaughtered at an earlier age, they have less negative impact on the environment. However, castration has economic drawbacks in that it impairs growth for some days after surgery and involves extra labour. In recent years knowledge about the pain and animal welfare issues related to castration, and consumer concerns, have focused greater attention on the castration of male pigs.

In this learning resource we will explain the reasons for boar taint, consider methods of detecting and measuring boar taint, and discuss the alternatives to castration. The point of departure is that all stakeholders prefer entire male pigs with high meat quality, rather than castrated pigs. We will discuss the dilemma of poor welfare associated with castration (pain and risk to the health of the animals) and the poor welfare of uncastrated pigs farmed in confined spaces (stress and fighting, resulting in skin lesions and ultimately carcass damage).

The scientific report on the animal welfare aspects of the castration of piglets has been peer-reviewed by the members of the Scientific Panel for Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) for the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The report was adopted in 2004.

Animal Welfare-friendly Pig Housing Systems

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Welcome to this learning resource on animal welfare-friendly pig housing systems. The way we produce pigs for pork consumption is of great concern. Animal welfare legislation and the means of enforcing it are becoming clearer and more powerful.

This learning resource is based on an inventory of 108 pork production systems in the EU and competing countries and a survey on consumer attitudes to pork production that was conducted in 2008. It includes examples from six different production systems in two countries, France and Sweden. The systems are described from economic, technical and animal welfare perspectives. It has a strong focus on video clips from different pig production systems.

The first video about pigs in a semi-natural environment includes clips showing pig behaviour in semi-natural conditions and in different commercial systems in Sweden, the UK and Denmark. Interviews with researchers, politicians and farmers are also included. This video is about 20 minutes long.

After this introduction the learning resource is divided into sections according to the production stage of the pig. For each production stage a number of different commercial pig production systems are presented - conventional systems and systems with a focus on animal welfare-friendly pig housing. Every system is presented with video clips and production figures. By exploring the material you will learn more about the mechanisms behind the different behaviours of the pig and what should be taken into account when building housing systems.

The scientific reports on the animal welfare aspects of different housing and husbandry systems are peer-reviewed by the members of the Scientific Panel for Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) for the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The report on adult breeding boars, pregnant and farrowing sows, and unweaned piglets was adopted in 2007 and the report on weaners and rearing pigs was adopted in 2005.

Animal Welfare-friendly Pig Housing Systems

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The learning resource is available in Portuguese

Guidelines for Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education

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Open educational resources (OER) are materials used to support education that may be freely accessed, reused, modified, and shared. These Guidelines outline key issues and make suggestions for integrating OER into higher education. Their purpose is to encourage decision makers in governments and institutions to invest in the systematic production, adaptation and use of OER and to bring them into the mainstream of higher education in order to improve the quality of curricula and teaching and to reduce costs.
Given the potential of OER to improve higher education systems, UNESCO and the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) have developed these Guidelines, after broad consultations with stakeholders in all regions of the world, to support governments, higher education institutions/providers, academic staff, student bodies and quality assurance/accreditation and recognition bodies.

Challenging Common Assumptions on Corruption and Democratisation: Key Recommendations and Guiding Principles

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This resource contains contributions on two themes, namely democratisation and corruption that still continue to receive either too little attention or too little systematic treatment in internatio

Nutritional Status Assessment and Analysis

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This e-learning course is part of the e-learning curriculum entitled "Food Security Information for Action".

FAAP: Framework for African Agricultural Productivity

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The purpose of the Framework for African Agricultural Productivity (FAAP) is to guide and assist stakeholders in African agricultural research and development to meet the objectives of Comprehensiv

Soutenir la mise en oeuvre de la décentralisation en milieu rural au Mali: Tome 1 - Thèmes d’actualité

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Ce document a été conçu et élabore pour, comme son nom l’indique, soutenir la décentralisation en milieu rural au Mali. Son but est d’appuyer tous ceux qui se sentent concernes par la décentralisation et y sont impliques, tous ceux qui veulent favoriser une gouvernance locale responsable et transparente et contribuer a un développement local équitable et durable. Le document comprend deux tomes. Ce premier tome présente les principaux thèmes d’actualité qu’il est nécessaire d’aborder pour la réussite du processus de décentralisation et quel peut être le rôle du facilitateur. (Texte adapté de s

Handbook 12 - Wetland Inventory: A Ramsar Framework for Wetland Inventory

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This Handbook is a part of the series produced by the Ramsar Convention which promotes an integrated package of actions to ensure the conservation and wise use of wetlands.

Koffi…la rue…les drogues

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Ce livret est à travers l’histoire de Koffi, un enfant soumis à un quotidien difficile qui se laisse entraîner par des copains, que ces différents aspects de la problématique sont abordés.