academics

Fundamentals of Meat's Water Holding Capacity

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Welcome to this learning resource on fundamentals of water holding capacity (WHC) of meat!

This learning resource consists of six sections:

Entire Male Pigs

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Welcome to this learning resource on entire male pigs!

It has been known since the Middle Ages that meat from a small minority (up to 10 %) of entire male pigs has an unpleasant odour, the so-called boar taint. The sensibility to boar taint is different between consumers and it can only be detected by some of the consumers and mainly when the pork is heated (Støier, 2010).

Problems with boar taint are nevertheless the primary reason for castration being routinely performed on the majority of male pigs in commercial meat production. Castration also results in reduced aggressive and sexual behaviour between pigs and a higher proportion of fat in carcasses.

Entire male pigs are preferred for meat production for several reasons. They are more efficient than castrates at converting feed into lean meat and, because they are slaughtered at an earlier age, they have less negative impact on the environment. However, castration has economic drawbacks in that it impairs growth for some days after surgery and involves extra labour. In recent years knowledge about the pain and animal welfare issues related to castration, and consumer concerns, have focused greater attention on the castration of male pigs.

In this learning resource we will explain the reasons for boar taint, consider methods of detecting and measuring boar taint, and discuss the alternatives to castration. The point of departure is that all stakeholders prefer entire male pigs with high meat quality, rather than castrated pigs. We will discuss the dilemma of poor welfare associated with castration (pain and risk to the health of the animals) and the poor welfare of uncastrated pigs farmed in confined spaces (stress and fighting, resulting in skin lesions and ultimately carcass damage).

The scientific report on the animal welfare aspects of the castration of piglets has been peer-reviewed by the members of the Scientific Panel for Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) for the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The report was adopted in 2004.

Low salt pig-meat products and novel formulations

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A learning resource on Low salt pig-meat products and novel formulations.

Guidelines for Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education

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Open educational resources (OER) are materials used to support education that may be freely accessed, reused, modified, and shared. These Guidelines outline key issues and make suggestions for integrating OER into higher education. Their purpose is to encourage decision makers in governments and institutions to invest in the systematic production, adaptation and use of OER and to bring them into the mainstream of higher education in order to improve the quality of curricula and teaching and to reduce costs.
Given the potential of OER to improve higher education systems, UNESCO and the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) have developed these Guidelines, after broad consultations with stakeholders in all regions of the world, to support governments, higher education institutions/providers, academic staff, student bodies and quality assurance/accreditation and recognition bodies.

WordPress - Blogging on the Web

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Blogs have become widespread on the Web. They allow individuals provide commentary or news on a particular subject, and they can also be used as more personal online diaries.

Workstation Ergonomics and Safe Use of Display Screen Equipment (DSE)

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It is important for those who spend long periods of time working with computers to know about workstation ergonomics, also known as DSE.

Using GMAIL

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This free online course uses the Web-based e-mail service from Google™ called Gmail™, (Google Mail in the UK and Germany), to introduce you to the basics of e-mail.

Understanding our Environment in Geography

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This free online environmental course explores a number of major global phenomena at play across the globe including deforestation, climate change and drought.

Statistics, Correlation and Regression in Mathematics

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This free online course is the first of our Upper-Secondary Mathematics suite of courses.

Speaking and Writing English Effectively

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"Speaking and Writing English Effectively" is an ideal course to enhance your English language abilities and is designed for proficient English speakers who would like to improve their speaking and